Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science <p>The aim of this journal is to promote innovative ideas and original research in the fields of Science and Engineering. This journal aims at publishing authentic research papers to create a culture of innovation and scientific development</p> Institute of Business Management, Department of Computer Science en-US Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2222-9930 Fully Connected Travelling: A Step towards Smart Cities <p>The cities of the future are smart and fully connected. They are the ultimate application of Internet of Things. The travelling in such a city will be completely autonomous and routes would be predefined. This requires reliable, fault-tolerant system design and uninterrupted connectivity. The question of interrupted connectivity can be answered largely by Fog-Cloud Network. However, the optimal placement of Fog node requires a specific design pattern. The paper proposes a design pattern that can be utilized for placement of Fog nodes along the continuum. The paper proposes Fog as a possible player in realizing fully connected travelling.</p> Urooj Yousuf Khan Muhammad Brohi Tariq Soomro Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 9 1 Change Management in a Global Distributed Environment <p><em>Context<strong>: </strong>in a distributed environment changing requirement results in project failure, changes come from different sites by multi-site stakeholder considering change requests from a different site and managing stakeholder issue change requests can handle efficiently. Here the objective is to find and manage the change process and suggest a solution to the stakeholder issues. Methods: we have done a literature review to find limitations in the change request process model and issue that stakeholders faced in a distributed environment<strong>. </strong>Results: We have identified activities missing in the change request process and change management process. We have also highlighted the role and responsibility for the activities to carry out a process of change management effectively. Our research also highlights stakeholder issues related to change management in a distributed environment and suggest an appropriate solution to the faced challenges. Conclusion: Our framework process not only defines a good balance change process but also identifies change activity in each process, role and responsibility to carry out the process and artifact efficiently. But there is a need to find more stakeholder issues related to managing the change request and their appropriate solution also need to find process activities in detail so that there must be no misunderstanding related to task assignment</em></p> saman Tariq Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 9 1 Improved Technique: An Alternative Method of Nodal Analysis <p><strong>Electric circuits plays dynamic role in each aspects of electrical engineering. An electrical engineer talent is to study in what manner circuits are split up into simpler parts. Though, breaking up hitches into lesser stages is the core of engineering. This research offers a sample of engineering approach to problem solving in modest and effective way. In Circuit analysis, means working out voltages and currents in each component. &nbsp;Node Voltage method is an organized scheme in investigating a circuit. Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) is precondition for nodal analysis, it selects node voltage as circuit parameter that supports in minimizing the number of equations that makes the design and calculation easier. This paper reports improved method of nodal analysis that computes node voltage based on the information of Ohm’s Law only. This is an easy-going technique, much simpler, carries lesser amount of time, reduces the circuit complications and keeps the calculation easier and informal as compare to formal Nodal analysis.</strong></p> Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 9 1 ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF PERFORMANCE KEY ENABLERS DURING FLOW OF INFORMATION IN BETWEEN TWO UNIT IN AUTOMOBILE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN <p>To understand the essential need with respect to the business strategy it is necessary to assess in the domain of performance Management. At current situation most of the organizations were more focusing on the productivity by improving their performance key enablers in order to sustain their business goal. A brief study is conduct under the frame of performance criteria to adopt and integrates with organization strategic factors. In most of organization performance measurement were critical interface to predict the pre desire set of objective in order to achieve the strategic mileage. The Aim of this study used to highlight the significant performance enablers that used to put potential influence during the sharing the flow of information between two different department. In case of this study more formulated focus on production and procurement were emphasis that allows investigating the relevant variables used to measure the performance.</p> Zeeshan Asim Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 9 1 NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXCHANGE RATE AND STOCK PRICE OF PAKISTAN FROM 1965 TO 2015 <p>The aim of this study is to determine the dynamic association between stock prices and exchange rates of Pakistan from 1965 to 2015, including the war era. Long and short-run associations are explored between these two time series variables. Econometrics techniques such as Johansson co-integration test, Vector Autoregressive Model, Granger causality and Vector Error Correction Model are used to assess the association between stock price and exchange rate of Pakistan. Daily time series data of Pakistan from 1 Jan 1965 to 31 May 2015, from Thomson Reuter’s software is used. The Johansson co-integration approach reveals that there are two co-integration factors existing between the two series, which shows that these two-time series have long-run movement. Nevertheless, Granger causality test reveals that bi-direction causality exists among the variables. While, the Vector Error Correction Model reveals that there is a short-run association among the series.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 9 1