Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science 2021-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 Dr Zahid Ahmed Open Journal Systems <p>The aim of this journal is to promote innovative ideas and original research in the fields of Science and Engineering. This journal aims at publishing authentic research papers to create a culture of innovation and scientific development</p> Use Of Pine (Pinus) Nut Oil and its Alternatives For Cardiovascular Diseases 2021-07-26T03:28:02+00:00 Zartaj Malik <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>Pine nut oil and its alternatives are rich in fatty acids. We determined their fatty acids and important minerals quantities present in them. We performed AAS to identify copper, zinc and iron, calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium in oils. Then we performed the HPLC test to identify fatty acids and vitamin K. Then we took 5 groups of rats each having 5 rats. One group was a controlled group with basic diet. Other four group were given high cholesterol diet for 20 days to increase their total cholesterol level (TC), low lipoprotein cholesterol level (LDL-C), high lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs). After 20 days, each group was fed basic diet with oil of 15mL. Second group was fed with 15mL/day pine nut oil (PNO), third group with 15mL/day pumpkin seed oil (PSO), fourth group was fed with 15mL/day walnut oil (WO) and fifth group was fed with 15mL/day sunflower oil (SO). After 4 weeks of this diet, the results were obtained that show the significant results. The present results revealed the decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride, total cholesterol and increase in high density lipoprotein.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science An AN OVERVIEW ON APPLICATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY IN PLASTICS INJECTION MOLDING INDUSTRY 2021-09-14T06:28:37+00:00 Muhammad Iqbal Asif Iqbal <h1 style="line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-weight: normal;">In this research study, the application of six sigma methodology in plastics injection moulding is reviewed. The DMAIC is acronym for Define, Measure, Analysis, Improve and Controlmethod is used in implementing of six-sigma in manufacturing process to improve quality level.By implementing this methodology, the sigma level has improved without any vast capital investment. Application of this methodology in manufacturing industries has given rise toahugeeconomic savings.</span></h1> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science DIVERSITY AND UTILIZATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING (DP): A BRIEF OVERVIEW 2021-11-03T04:21:27+00:00 Maryam Younus <p><em>“Dynamic programming” (DP) is an influential tool for resolving an extensive class of sequential decision making problems under uncertainty. Technically, it enables us to compute optimal decision rules that spell out the best promising decision in any condition. This article reviews progresses in DP and distinguishes its ground breaking effects on economics, operations research, engineering and artificial intelligence (AI) with the relative scantiness of its real world appliances to upgrade the decision making of firms and individuals. The fuzziness of numerous real world decision problems and the difficulty in mathematically modeling them are main hurdles to an extensive application of DP in real world situations. Even so, in this review article a number of successful experiments were conferred, it was concluded that DP proposes significant assurance for better decision making. The empirically unsustainable hypothesis of unbounded rationality and tackle the challenging decision problems faced every day in routine life. Furthermore, it is deemed as a good technique for optimal operation due to the sequential decision making and ease in handling non-linear objective roles and constraints. Although the application of DP to major and multi directional situation is not that encouraging due to the problem ‘curse of dimensionality’. Incremental DP, discrete differential DP, DP with successive approximation and incremental DP with successive approximation are a few of the algorithms evolved to tackle this problem for DP. But in all these cases, it is difficult to choose an initial trial path, to obtain an optimal solution and there is uncontrolled number of iterations required for convergence. </em></p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PERFORMANCES OF SUPERVISED LEARNING ALGORITHMS IN DIFFERENT PHISHING DATASETS 2021-06-30T06:46:26+00:00 Akinyemi Moruff OYELAKIN <p>Phishing techniques are employed by attackers to obtain the sensitive and confidential information of unsuspecting internet users. To stem the tide of phishing-based attacks in the cyber space, different machine learning techniques have been proposed as better alternatives to the signature-based approaches. This study used a different approach in the detection of phishing evidence in three phishing datasets. The focus of the study is to investigate the performances of Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbour and ExtraTree algorithms in three different phishing datasets. &nbsp;The first two datasets of different sizes and features were obtained from Machine Learning UCI repository while the third dataset was collected from Mendeley. Exploratory Data Analysis was carried out in order to understand the nature of the features in the three datasets. Then, minimal dataset pre-processing was carried out on the features. A filter-based feature selection method called Anova F-test was used to select promising features that can improve classification performances of the selected learning algorithms. From all the experimental analyses, findings revealed that Random Forest has the overall best performances compared to the two other classifiers. Moreso, all the three algorithms had best average performances in the four metrics in the dataset provided by Tan (2018). The technique used in this study provided further insights in phishing detection studies.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science The Madadgar(Anti theft-SOS) Android App 2021-11-01T08:28:31+00:00 Muhammad Ayoub Kamal <p><strong>This paper presents an anti-theft application for android based devices to find stolen or lost vehicles, child, and report of crime, mobile snatching, lost of person, vehicle verification and Emergency SOS button. As we all know after mobile snatching people faced a lot of difficulty in Blocking of sim, and lodging mobile theft complains, but with this app user will be able to lodge complains in just few minutes and the client will moreover be able to call for offer assistance in case of crisis by squeezing S0S button at which exact location of the user will send to response center without consuming time.Now this application work as once this application installed in user’s android mobile device,it will stored user’s email id,mobile phone number,and CNIC number ,collect the data from the sensors and keep running in the background by using services.Example:1 If the user is in emergency situation he/she just trigger the SOS button for help then location of the victim will go to response center and they will trace the location and take immediate action .Example :2 If user see any robbery nearby his area he can easily make video and take pictures of that incident then simply upload it in this application through form filling.Example:3 If user’s vehicle or child is lost then he can upload vehicle or child pictures with detailed information by filling form.The purpose of this application is to bring Citizens of Pakistan and CPLC on one platform .This app will end the hassle to visit or call police station/CPLC and will allow the user to lodge complains, call for help through user friendly forms instantly. This collaboration will allow Citizens of Pakistan and security forces to associate with each other more efficiently. It will become an important part of people’s everyday lives as it combines simplicity and usefulness and brings Pakistani Forces and citizens on one single platform.</strong></p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science CoviDoor. IoT Based Temperature Sensing Door Handle 2021-04-03T07:08:36+00:00 Taha Bukhari <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>The continuous development of IoT innovation plays a vital role in building up the well-being region by making it dramatically more accessible and moderate by making it easier to use applications for virtual and removed patient interactions. With the skill of IoT technology, it is conceivable to solve the difficulties that truly dysfunctional patients encounter while really routinely counseling a professional. A model of an IoT-based remote health monitoring system for patients has been prompted by this work. Three wellness sensors are included in this model: heart beat sensor, internal heat level sensor, and galvanic skin reaction sensor. With Arduino, Uno and Raspberry Pi joined together, all of these sensors were consolidated into a solitary system. The information obtained from the sensors is transferred via the Raspberry Pi to a distributed storage. The distributed storage continuously refreshes the information base continuously. Using Android Studio, an Android application was developed that could get to the data base and display a visual representation of the limits of well-being. The need to attend clinics for critical medical conditions can be beaten by IoT coordinated with the well-being wearable. In addition, this fundamentally decreases the treatment costs for patients. In addition, by noticing the patient's well-being information over the long haul via an application, the specialists will support critical medications. In order to understand the operation of the sensors used, point by point analysis of the signs was obtained concerning varieties of physical and natural exercises. </strong></p> <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>As of late among clinical experts, designs just like IT experts, the far off well-being observing system has been an interesting topic. In any event, in several nations, the use of a distant well-being monitoring approach where specialists can screen the vital signs of patients through the web is new for all intents and purposes. The distant well-being monitoring system is advantageous for patients and community in 2017 where the use of such a framework would save hospital fees, hold up time and reduce clinic deals. The aim of this undertaking is to plan and develop an internal heat level estimation system that can be continuously seen by the specialist across the web as history data with an alert/sign in the event of irregularities. Remote sensors for pulse and internal heat level have been established in the proposed well-being control system, but this paper only relies on the remote observing framework for internal heat level. Using Arduino UNO communication, the temperature sensors will give the measurements to a microcontroller. Remote neighbourhood (WLAN) has been used to submit the genuine information to the wellness checking information base. For this reason, Arduino has been used with an Ethernet shield based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. Test results from a deliberate set show the ongoing temperature being effectively observed locally (at home) </strong></p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of Engineering, Technology & Science