Journal of Education and Educational Development <p>The Journal of Education and Educational Development is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal designed as an outlet for research in Education and Educational Development. JoEED is committed to promoting the distribution of important scholarly work at all levels. The journal has a broad scope and publishes qualitative and quantitative research studies along with discussions, which helps readers and researchers to grasp the understanding of the new and old paradigms in education. In addition to submissions from faculty/researchers, students at the graduate and MPhil level, Ph.D. scholars are also encouraged to submit their work, whether it is the product of coursework, a student thesis, an independent study, or a directed research project. </p> Institute of Business Management, Department of Education en-US Journal of Education and Educational Development 2310-0869 The Relationship between the Teachers’ Expectation on the School Principals’ Ethical Behaviors and the School Principals’ Ethical Leadership Behaviors <p>This study aimed to analyze the teachers’ expectations related to the school principals’ ethical behaviors and the frequency of the school principals’ performing ethical leadership behaviors based on the teachers’ perceptions. Data were collected through the Teacher Ethical Expectation Scale (ÖEBÖ) and School Principal’s Performing Ethical Leadership Scale (PELBS) which were developed by the researchers for the aim of this research. The sample of the study consisted of 541 participant teachers selected from the population of the teachers working at public schools located in Sakarya, province of Turkey, during the 2018-2019 academic year. According to the teachers’ perceptions, it was found that the teachers’ expectations of the school principals’ ethical behaviors and the frequency of the principals’ performing ethical leadership behaviors were quite high. It was also seen that there was a significant positive relationship at a low level because of the path analysis, which was done to predict the school principals’ performing ethical behaviors through the teachers’ expectations on ethical behaviors. It was concluded that the ethical behaviors from the school principals expected by the teachers as the independent variable were seen to explain 8.6% of the variance in ethical behaviors performed by the school principals as the dependent variable.</p> Abdurrahman Ilgan Mustafa Ekiz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Human Rights Education and Language Learning in Pakistan: An EFL Perspective <p>This paper explores the dissemination of human rights through English language learning in Pakistan and builds on the knowledge that contributes to the development of democratic educational outcomes. Textbook discourses have long been the domain of critical linguistics; critical linguists understand textbook discourse primarily as a language in the context of schooling while the discourse analysts understand such discourses as systems of knowledge and ideology. The question of how the learners are expected to engage with the subject knowledge is explored from two theoretical perspectives: linguistic analyses are executed using tools such as choice of pronouns, mood, and modality from Systemic Functional<br />Linguistics (Halliday et al., 2014), a social semiotic theory of language as a meaning potential, and reinterpreted according to the intercultural paradigm (Piller, 2010) to familiarize the ways interactants choose to build relations in the textbook narratives because in exploring interpersonal meanings it is very easy to focus on what is said and why. Additionally, the image analysis is done by representational analysis that of how images reflect ideologies (Kress &amp; VanLeeuwen., 2006). The contributions of this study are of particular importance to make visible elements of interpersonal meaning-making which were explored in the context of cumulative knowledge building in humanities.</p> Tazanfal Tehseem Zahra Bokhari Saba Zulfiqar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 What Kind of Person Should an Education System Raise? A Survey of Teachers’ Views in Turkey <p>This study aims to find answers to the question: What kind of person should the Turkish education system raise? To evaluate the participants’ responses thoroughly, the phenomenology method has been used. The study group includes 185 teachers and school administrators working in Sivas city centre. To reach out to more participants, the data have been obtained by a survey developed by the researcher. Four categories, academic, social, individual, and ethical, have been identified as a result of data analysed with content analysis. The data have been presented according to the variables of school type and positions. According to the findings, it has been found out that teachers’ order of preference about the kind of person to be raised is individual, academic, ethical, and social characteristics;<br />administrators’ order of preference is academic, individual, ethical, and social characteristics. Sentences have been formed about the kind of a person to be raised by the variables of school types and positions in the study. In this regard, considering participants’ priorities, common phrases have been brought out to be ‘having critical thinking, ethical, national and moral values, and love of country and nation’.</p> Soner Dogan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Teacher Educators’ Attitude towards the Pedagogical use of ICTs: A Study from Karachi, Pakistan <p>At present teacher education in Pakistan is in a transitional phase. The Government of Pakistan has developed ten professional standards for teachers’ recruitment and training (NPSTP, 2009). Two subjects ‘Computer literacy’ and ‘ICTs in Education’ have been introduced in the new curriculum to equip prospective teachers with Standard # 7 of NPSTP 2009 (i.e., ‘Effective Communication and Proficient Use of Information and Communication Technologies’) and to enhance contemporary technological skills required by a 21st-century educator. This quantitative descriptive study was aimed to investigate teacher educators’ attitudes towards the pedagogical use of ICTs in the teaching and learning process. For this quantitative study, five research questions, one descriptive and four inferential were formulated. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample of the study of 133 teacher educators’ was conveniently selected from different teacher training institutions of Karachi. The descriptive analysis of the attitude scale illustrates the moderate level of positive attitude towards the use of ICTs among teacher educators of Karachi TTIs. The analysis of<br />inferential questions (null hypotheses) illustrates that there is no significant difference in attitudes of teacher educators concerning gender, age, and experience, and this finding is aligned to recent studies conducted by Mustafina (2016) and Tweed (2013). Consequently, from the findings of this study, it may be concluded that demographical variables (i.e., gender, age, and experience) are not the determinants of teacher educators’ attitudes towards the use of ICTs. The findings of the study suggest that supportive conditions and hands-on training on the pedagogical use of ICTs should be conducted in TTIs.</p> Sohail Ahmed Hina Hussain Kazmi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Teachers’ Practices in Blended Learning Environment: Perception of Students at Secondary Education Level <p>The overload in teachers’ role has been renowned and optimized by generative adaptation of technology, which means teaching capability can be improved if educationalists blend technology tropically and timely. Based on this belief, this study tried to judge the teachers’ practices in Blended Learning (BL) environment in the context of secondary level students. For this purpose, an empirical study was conducted at Government High School No.1 (boys) Tordher district Swabi Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK). All 120 enrolled science students of grade 9 and 4 science teachers participated in the study. The students’ perception of teachers’ practices of preparedness, innovation, and developing feedback skills in the BL environment<br />were ascertained through a survey questionnaire whereas 20 students were also interviewed randomly. The responses were measured through a 5-point based Likert scale, data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The research method used for this study was the explanatory sequential approach of mixed-method (Creswell, 2014). Based on the study findings, teachers’ practices improved in the BL environment and hence recommended that secondary school teachers need to be encouraged to use the BL approach instead of merely using Information Communication Technology (ICT) or traditional methods of teaching. </p> ASIF Muhammad Palitha Edirisingha Riasat Ali Saqib Shehzad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Technology Integration and Teachers’ Professional Knowledge with Reference to International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)-Standard: A Causal Study <p>It is becoming a new trend in developing countries to integrate ICT effectively in the teaching-learning process inside or outside the classroom to boost teachers’ professional knowledge (TPK). The present study addresses the technology integration relationship with TPK according to the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE-2008) Standards for Teachers in private secondary schools of Karachi. TPK was categorized as 2 standards of ISTE-2008 i.e. enhance creativity in students and design digital-age assessment. 120 teachers from 12 private secondary schools of Karachi were selected based on a simple random<br />sampling technique. For the collection of data, a teacher survey questionnaire was used that was designed to gain information on their level of ICT integration and their professional knowledge according to the ISTE-2008 Standards. Data was collected through questionnaire distribution and analyzed through SPSS. Based on ANOVA results, the overall model was significant because the F value was greater than 2 and the significant value was less than 0.05. A strong significant correlation was found between ICT integration and TPK. Strong and moderate significant correlation of ICT integration with teachers’ ability to enhance creativity and design digital-age assessment was found respectively. ICT integration explained 32% of the variance in teachers’ professional knowledge. The integration of ICT with ISTE-standards is highly recommended for the teachers.</p> Rabia Aslam Najmonnisa Khan Ushaque Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Impact of Computer Integrated Technique in Science Education at Elementary Level: A Study in Karachi <p>Computer technology plays an active role in the development of the economic, educational, and social growth of a country. Following a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design, the primary purpose of the study was to comprehend the advantages of teaching science to grade 6 students via Computer Integrated Teaching (CIT) as compared to the lecture-based approach. This study also investigated if computer integrated teaching enhanced students learning and contributed to higher achievement scores. The research was conducted for 6 months, with a focus on grade 6 science instruction. The quantitative part of the study comprised experimental research with a sample size of 62 students. Experimental group students were exposed to a strong intervention program of CIT, whereas the control group was taught by traditional methods. The findings of the study show that the experimental group scored significantly higher marks in science theory and practical tests than the control group students. The qualitative findings of the study, based on focus group interviews, support the quantitative findings as students favored technology-based learning because of its vast potential.</p> Salman Ashiq Zehra Habib Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Iqbal and Modern Islamic Educationists, Part 1: The Perceived Aims and Objectives of Education - A Comparative Analysis <p>Iqbal views the schooling as well as the Madrassah systems devoid of developing a dynamic Muslim required for the renaissance of Ummah. With this realization, many Islamic educationists in Pakistan have established. Islamic schools in Pakistan. The question is whether their models are dynamic enough to create such Muslims? This research probes into the perceptions and practices of ten Islamic school educationists in Pakistan. It also probes and clearly elaborates Iqbal’s educational directives, and finally does a comparative analysis of Iqbal’s directives with the Islamic educationists’ perceptions and practices. Exploring Iqbal’s educational thought includes qualitatively drawing hermeneutical interpretations<br />from Iqbal’s two Persian anthologies of Asrar i khudi (Secrets of the Self), and Ramooz i bikhudi (Mysteries of Selflessness). Thematic data analysis was used to draw the aims and objectives for education from Iqbal’s said works. It was discovered that though the Islamic educationists carried some visions of education from Islamic perspective, they were largely following contemporary secular frame work of education in attempting to achieve these objectives. The contemporary schooling framework has been severely critiqued by Iqbal and is deplored by many educationists in the west as well for its ineptness to confirm with child’s learning psychology. This project was undertaken as my doctoral research and is presented in two parts. The first part elaborates the aims and objectives as conceived by these Islamic educationists, and as derived from Iqbal’s educational philosophy. The second part of this paper will elaborate the practices of these educationists with Iqbal’s educational directives.</p> Muhammad Abid Ali Suhailah Hussien Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 The Perceptions and Practices of University Students and Teachers about Classroom Presentations <p><em> Students’ classroom presentations as teaching and assessment techniques are widely in practice at universities all over the world. Previous studies indicate that university students are provided unsatisfactory time for presentations. It frustrates them especially when teachers use the presentation as an assessment tool. The present study aimed to explore the views of teachers and students’ perceptions behind their dissatisfaction with the uses of presentations by teachers as a teaching method as well as an assessment tool. In this qualitative study, researchers used<br />semi-structured interviews from 14 M. Phil students and three of their teachers. Both teachers’ and students’ practices were also observed during sessions as scheduled for presentation activity. The observations were made towards the end semester from the qualitative thematic analysis. It was found that students’ and teachers’ expectations from each other regarding many aspects of the presentation did not match. Especially, students felt unhappy about the time duration allowed to<br />prepare presentations. Feedback was also regarded as useless and of low quality. Presentations were more frequently used at the end of the semester rather than through the semester. Teachers need to share criteria based on the possible time for an average student to understand and present the assigned tasks in class.</em></p> Kamal Uddin Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi Haji Karim Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2 Regression Model on Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control as Predictors of Academic Performance of students in Higher Education <p><em>This research computed the combined effects of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control as predictors of academic performance of students in different universities of Karachi by using the Regression model. Previous researches were correlational studies in nature and reported the moderate positive correlations between the variables self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control and academic performance. A questionnaire with 40 items related to self-esteem, self-efficacy,<br />locus of control, and academic performance was designed. The data was collected from the public and private universities of Karachi. Descriptive Statistics, t-test, Correlation, and Regression were calculated through SPSS. The regression model showed that self-esteem, self-efficacy, Locus of Control significantly predicted the academic performance of the graduate students. In Structural Equation Modeling self-efficacy contributed more to the academic performance of students. This<br />research recommends more future researches for in-depth analysis of latent variables as the idea has not researched its maturity in the context of higher education in Pakistan.</em></p> Javeria Waseem Asim Muhammad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 7 2