Journal of Education and Educational Development <p>The Journal of Education and Educational Development is a double-blind peer reviewed journal designed as an outlet for research in Education and Educational Development. JoEED is committed to promoting the distribution of important scholarly work at all levels. The journal has a broad scope and publishes qualitative and quantitative research studies along with discussions, which helps readers and researchers to grasp the understanding of the new and old paradigms in education. In addition to submissions from faculty/researchers, students at the graduate and MPhil level, PhD scholars are also encouraged to submit their work, whether it is the product of coursework, a student thesis, an independent study, or a directed research project. </p> Institute of Business Management, Department of Education en-US Journal of Education and Educational Development 2310-0869 Conducting Narrative Studies in Pakistan: Reflections from the Field <p><em>This reflective paper emerges from the analysis of my experience of carrying out narrative studies in Pakistan — a country where narrative research in education is still very young. Field-notes, reflective journals and research memos were the key sources for the analysis. The reflections showcase my experiences of getting the insider’s views, co-constructing narratives, and co-constructing the research reality while carrying out narrative research studies in Pakistan. Findings have pertinent implications for narrative research studies in Pakistan and elsewhere in a similar settings.</em></p> Haji Karim Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 7 1 177 183 Home Learning in Times of COVID: Experiences of Parents <p><em>The widespread prevalence of COVID-19 pandemic has affected academia and parents alike. Due to the sudden closure of schools, students are missing social interaction which is vital for better learning and grooming while most schools have started online classes. This has become a tough routine for the parents working online at home since they have to ensure their children’s education. The study presented was designed to explore the experiences of home learning in times of COVID-19. A descriptive qualitative study was planned to explore the experiences of parents about home learning and management during COVID-19 to get an insight into real-life experiences. Purposive sampling technique was used for data collection. Data were collected from 19 parents falling in the inclusion criteria. Considering the lockdown problem, the data were collected via Google docs form with open-ended questions related to COVID-19 and home learning. Three major themes emerged after the data analysis: impact of COVID on children learning; support given by schools; and strategies used by caregivers at home to support learning. It was analyzed that the entire nation and academicians around the world have come forward to support learning at home offering a wide range of free online avenues to support parents to facilitate home-learning. Furthermore, parents too have adapted quickly to address the learning gap that have emerged in their children’s learning in these challenging times. Measures should be adopted to provide essential learning skills to children at home. Centralized data dashboards and educational technology may be used to keep the students, parents and schools updated.</em></p> Shelina Bhamani Areeba Zainab Makhdoom Vardah Bharuchi Nasreen Ali Sidra Kaleem Dawood Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 9 26 Students’ Response to Participating in an International Project on Readers’ Response to Lord of the Flies: Insights into Using Collaborative Teaching Techniques <p><em>Teaching literature through new techniques and judging its relevance in terms of students’ perceptions in an under-researched and significant area of study. This study aims to explore students’ response to new teaching methodologies being used in a literature classroom, as part of an international research project. This international project was a collaboration between Pakistan, the UK and Norway. Collaborative teaching techniques of using literature circles within each class and google circles across the three contexts (online) were used. The whole population of the students (n=12) who had participated in the international project were approached for interviews. All twelve participating students from Pakistan were interviewed to explore their reactions to the international study. Students felt that they learnt new things from the use of these innovative methods, were able to learn from foreigners and felt a sense of connectivity to their groups. It is recommended that students from Pakistan be given such exposure to overcome their hesitation as such research studies tend to have a positive impact on students. It is also recommended that further research be carried out in other contexts as well to determine if the use of such teaching pedagogies can benefit other teachers of literature.</em></p> Ghazal Kazim Syed Manzoor-ul-Mustafa Panhwar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 27 43 Teaching Children Road Safety Using a Simulated Environment <p><em>The importance of road safety education is widely acknowledged; however, there is a </em><em>lack of consistency in road safety interventions currently being used in UK schools. </em><em>Furthermore, the majority of road safety educational programmes use knowledgebased </em><em>methods, which do not necessarily translate to improved behaviour in real </em><em>traffic environments. The use of virtual reality is starting to emerge as a viable </em><em>option, as it allows for repeated risk-free practice. This study aimed to test the </em><em>efficacy and playability of a virtual reality road crossing iPad-based game with </em><em>children aged 7-9 years. A total of 137 children from primary school years 3 and </em><em>4 completed the study. The game comprised ten levels increasing in complexity. </em><em>Participants navigated to a target using a magic portal into the virtual world (the </em><em>iPad position matching the direction of travel). Remote, anonymous in-game data </em><em>were collected and the results suggested that performance was significantly better </em><em>on their final attempt as compared to their first attempt, regardless of age and </em><em>gender. Overall, the results suggest that the iPad-based game allowed the children</em><br /><em>to practice road crossing in an immersive environment, without risk and could</em><br /><em>provide a useful, evidence-based addition to current road safety education in UK </em><em>schools.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> gaming, primary education, road safety education, tablet technology, virtual reality</em></p> Catherine Purcell Amy Romijn Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 44 54 Impact of Community Service Learning on the Social Skills of Students <p><em>Recently, many high schools and universities have promoted community service learning program by making it part of the admission process; therefore, students participate in community service learning program to get admission in an institution of their choice. Moreover, after completing the community service program, they see themselves as more socially responsible citizens. This qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of community service learning on the social skills of students. The study employed a qualitative method by randomly selecting twenty five male and female students for focused group interviews from five different O- level schools situated in a middle socio-economic locality. The results revealed that community service learning program has a positive impact on the social skills of O-level students. Besides, students had also a positive learning experience. The findings of the study indicated that the awareness to encourage community service in schools is grounded on the acceptance that it does not only give students extra credit points, but serving others or one’s own community also makes them better citizens. Based on the advantages and positive experiences of students, the study recommends to include a more inclusive model of service learning in school curriculum.</em></p> Azmina Afzal Nasreen Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 55 70 Comparative Study of Classroom Management Strategies employed by Public and Private School English Language Teachers <p><em>This was a comparative research project to study classroom management strategies of English language teachers (ELTs) at secondary level public and private sector schools in Lahore. The purpose of the research was to identify the strategies used by the English language teachers. A total of 200 English language teachers: 100 from public sector and 100 from private sector schools were selected using the random sampling technique. A close-ended questionnaire was designed by the researcher to collect data from the respondents. The data were entered into the spreadsheet of SPSS version 21.0. Different statistical techniques were used to analyze the data. Mean scores along with standard deviations were calculated for descriptive statistics. For inferential statistics, independent sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used. Two strategies like specific teaching strategies and planning and support were commonly used by the respondents. Significant differences were found in the strategies used by public sector and private sector ELTs. Policy recommendations such as organizing teacher training workshops would encourage ELTs to use classroom management strategies effectively.</em></p> Nauman A Abdullah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 71 86 Influence of Teaching Style on Students’ Engagement, Curiosity and Exploration in the Classroom <p><em>Interaction between teachers and students carries immense significance inside classrooms as it contributes to students’ learning. The present study aims to explore perceived teaching style (autonomous-supportive and/or controlling) and its correlation with students’ engagement, curiosity and exploration in crosssectional sample of school and university students (N= 402). Three questionnaires were used: Perceived Parental Autonomy Support Scale P-PASS (Mageau, et al., 2015); Student Engagement Instrument (Appleton, Christenson, Kim, &amp; Reschly, 2006); and Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (Kashdan, et al., 2009). The results showed that students simultaneously perceived both teaching styles, that is, Autonomous-supportive and Controlling. However, a significant difference was observed between the score of school students where they found their teachers to be more supportive (t (402)=3.942) and controlling (t (402)=4.774) as compared to university students. Furthermore, there was moderate correlation between perceived autonomy support teaching style with students’ engagement (r=.463) as well as curiosity and exploration (r=.318). The results offer an understanding of students’ perceptions of teaching style contributing to students’ curiosity and motivation to engage in classroom.</em></p> Awaisha Inayat Amena Zehra Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 Measurement of Essential Skills in Mathematics: A Comparative Analysis of SSC (Grade-X) and GCE (O-Level) Exam Papers <p><em>The major focus of school education is the intellectual development of students and mathematics is a very effective subject in this regard, if taught and assessed properly. For this study, papers of SSC (Grade-10) for the years 2014 and 2015 set by the Board of Secondary Education, Karachi were scrutinized to know if the items of these papers had measured essential mathematical skills or not. These items were then compared with the items set by General Certificate of Education (GCE: O-Level), University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) for mathematics papers, serving as a benchmark for this study to highlight the shortcomings. The results revealed that the items of SSC papers were highly biased towards ‘Factual Knowledge’ and ‘Routine Procedures’. The study concluded that these items assess knowledge of facts and algorithms only and do not measure essential mathematical skills (involvement of higher levels of thinking processes) of students. The study recommends to improve the items of papers so that essential mathematical skills can be measured rather than the capacity of memorization because with this practice, thinking habits cannot be inculcated among students.</em></p> Muhammad Akhtar Ahmad Saeed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 103 118 Effect of Simulated Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance at Secondary School Level <p>The study was conducted to compare the performance of students working in chemistry laboratory with those working in chemistry laboratory supplemented with simulations at secondary school level. The study was experimental in nature and post-test only control group design was used. The sample comprised of 55 males and 60 female students and 02 Chemistry teachers of class IX of Public schools. At the end of the treatment, practical examination was conducted on the pattern of Peshawar Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. The scores of both control and experimental groups were compared by using independent sample t-test in three main areas i.e. written, viva voce and notebook. The result of independent sample t test of school No 1(male) indicated that there is a significance difference between the performance of control group (M=8.9, SD=2.13) and experimental group (M=10.5, SD=3.04) at =0.05 and df=53. The result of independent sample t test of school No 2(female) indicated that there is a significance difference between the performance of control group (M=10, SD=1.91) and experimental group (M=11.7, SD=2.13) at<br />=0.05 and df=58. The qualitative data was collected by means of interviews from chemistry teachers. Both the interviewees were motivated and showed keen interest in the simulated software. The performance of the students of experimental groups showed improvement results in the rejection of hypotheses that there is no significant difference between the performance of students taught by conventional demonstration in laboratory and laboratory work facilitated with simulation.</p> Farkhanda Jabeen Muhammad Tanveer Afzal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 119 139 Understanding Women’s Perceptions of Promoting Education and Policy Initiatives about Climate Change in Rural Areas of Sindh, Pakistan <p><em>Climate change is an inevitable issue of modern world. Women often face greater risk and share greater burden due to their limited adaptive capacity. Studies suggest that knowledge and education can result in better resilience and sustainable development. Climate change education encourages changes in attitude and behavior that leads to better adaptability to climate changes. This paper aims to explore the local women’s understanding of climate change education and policy initiatives taken in rural areas. A qualitative exploratory study was chosen for this study. The data collection methodology was through qualitative process. 20 women participants from rural areas of Sindh were interviewed. The finding reveled that women in rural area of Sindh have very low understanding and knowledge of any climate change educational program conducted in their regions. The lack of awareness regarding any climate change policy initiatives was also observed. This lack of awareness was attributed to their low literacy rate, lack of gender inclusiveness and cultural barriers and hindrances. The understanding of these factors at all level of policy making is key for successful climate change education policy.</em></p> Falak Shad Memon Shahid Amjad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 7 1 140 156 Student Optimism – Grading of an Experiential Learning Project <p><em>In order to obtain good grades, students involve themselves in hard work according to the best of their ability, yet an experiential learning project makes it even harder to attain the grades that the students are aiming for. Researches have shown that students are generally optimistic about their grades, yet no research has been found in Pakistan to gauge student optimism in grades with regard to experiential learning projects. This study is an attempt to gauge an empirical attempt to gauge students’ optimism towards their grades in an experiential learning project. A sample of 106 students is obtained via purposive sampling technique enrolled in the same university and same course. After being involved in an experiential learning project, they were asked their expected marks which were compared later with their actually obtained marks. Pair sample t-test is applied to figure out whether the average of perceived marks is statistically different than the average of actually obtained marks. The average of expected marks exceeds by 2.14 which is statistically significant at 99.9% confidence interval.</em></p> Nawaz Ahmad Sarwat Nauman Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education and Educational Development 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 7 1 157 176