COVID-19 Pandemic and Blended Learning: A Quantitative Assessment of Revised Community of Inquiry (RCoI) Framework


  • Sania Usmani Institute of Business Management



Revised Community of Inquiry, Learning Management System, Hybrid Teaching, Blended Teaching, Learning


This paper presents the Revised Community of Inquiry (RCoI) framework to identify different aspects of learning presence (Learner, Teaching, Social and Cognitive presence) in a blended learning course. RCoI framework emphasizes on the roles of stakeholders in online education. This research tested the impact of RCoI on Students Learning with the moderating role of Technology (Learning Management System). The data was collected from 462 students in different universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Results identified that there is a positive relationship of RCoI and Technology Use (LMS) on Students Learning in a Blended/Hybrid course. Further, there was one moderating role of technology Use (LMS) found in this research. Technology moderates the relationship between Cognitive presence and Students Learning. It shows that technology reduces the cognitive presence of students and reduces their effective learning. They are lesser involved in critical thinking and problem solving as compared to classroom teaching.


Albert, M. & Beatty, B.J. (2014, November). Flipping the classroom applications to curriculum redesign for an introduction to management course: Impact on grades. Journal of Education for Business, 89(8), 419- 424.

Amemado, D., & Manca, S. (2017). Learning from decades of online distance education: MOOCs and the Community of Inquiry Framework. Journal of e-learning and Knowledge Society, 13(2).

Arano-Ocuaman, J. A. (2010). Differences in student knowledge and perception of learning experiences among non-traditional students in blended and face-to-face classroom delivery (Doctoral dissertation)

Buch, G. R. & Warren, C. B. (2017). The flipped classroom: Implementing technology to aid in college mathematics student’s success. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 10(2), 109-116.

Chaeruman, U. A., Wibawa, B., & Syahrial, Z. (2018). Determining the appropriate blend of blended learning: A formative research in the context of Spada-Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(3), 188-195.

Cohen, J., & Kupferschmidt, K. (2020). Countries test tactics in 'war' against COVID-19. Science, 367(6484), 1287-1288.

Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). COVID-19 and remote learning: Experiences of parents with children during the pandemic. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(3), 45-65.

Green, T. (2015). Flipped classrooms: An agenda for innovative marketing education in the digital era. Marketing Education Review, 25 (3), 179-191.

Government of Pakistan (May 2020) Pakistan National Education Response And Resilience Plan (K-12) for COVID-19, Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training

Hair, J. F., Howard, M. C., & Nitzl, C. (2020). Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. Journal of Business Research, 109, 101-110.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.

Johnson, K., & Misterek, S (2017). Benefits and Challenges of Teaching in a Hybrid and Flipped Classroom. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 4 (11), 1-8

Kim, J., Park, H. Jang, M. & Nam, H. (2017, Summer). Exploring flipped classroom effects on second language learners’ cognitive processing. Foreign Language Annals. 50(2) 260-284. DOI: 10.1111/flan.12260

Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014). The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: an exploration of design principles. The Internet and Higher Education, 22, 37-50.

Krasnova, T., & Demeshko, M. (2015). Tutor-mediated support in Blended learning. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 166, 404–408.

O’Flaherty, J. & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85-9.

Phillips, C.R. and Trainor, J.E. (2014). Millennial students and the flipped classroom. Journal of Business and Educational Leadership, 5(1), 102-112.

Pool, J., Reitsma, G. M., & Van den Berg, D. N. (2017). Revised Community of Inquiry framework: examining learning presence in a blended mode of delivery.

Poon, J. (2014). A cross-country comparison on the use of Blended learning in property education. Property Management, 32(2), 154–175.

Popescu, E., & Badea, G. (2020). Exploring a Community of Inquiry Supported by a Social Media-Based Learning Environment. Educational Technology & Society, 23(2), 61-76.

Prashar, A. (2015). Assessing the flipped classroom in operations management: A pilot study. Journal of Education for Business. 90(3),126-138.

Reasons, S. G., Valadares, K., & Slavkin, M. (2005). Questioning the hybrid model: Student outcomes in different course formats. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 9(1), 83-94.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J.-M. (2015). "SmartPLS 3." Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH,

Shea, P., Hayes, S., Smith, S. U., Vickers, J., Bidjerano, T., Pickett, A., . . . Shoubang, J. (2012). Learning presence: Additional research on a new conceptual element within the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework. Internet and Higher Education, 15, 89-95.

Song, Y. & Kapur, M. (2017, January). How to flip the classroom – Productive failure or traditional flipped classroom pedagogical design? International Forum of Educational Technology & Society, 292-305.

Stover, S., & Ziswiler, K. (2017). Impact of Active Learning Environments on Community of Inquiry. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(3), 458-470.

Swan, K., Matthews, D., Bogle, L., Boles, E., & Day, S. (2012). Linking online course design and implementation to learning outcomes: A design experiment. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 81–88. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.07.002

World Meter 2021, Retrieved from

Wikipedia, (2021) Retrieved from

Young, G. (2002). Hybrid Teaching Seeks to End the Drive Between Traditional and Online Instruction. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Zainuddin, Z., & Keumala, C. M. (2018). Blended learning method within Indonesian higher education institutions. Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora, 6(2), 69-77.

Zainuddin, Z. (2017). First-Year College Students’ Experiences in the EFL Flipped Classroom: A Case Study in Indonesia. International Journal of Instruction, 10(1), 133–150.



How to Cite

Usmani, S. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemic and Blended Learning: A Quantitative Assessment of Revised Community of Inquiry (RCoI) Framework. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 8(2).