Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of Workplace Spirituality Scale in Pakistani Context School Teachers


  • Muhammad Aslam IER, PU, Lahore
  • Abid Hussain Chaudhary Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore.




workplace spirituality, workplace spirituality scale, psychometric properties, validity, reliability


Workplace Spirituality (WS) is recognized as inner state of individuals and an aspect of their working life. This study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of Workplace Spirituality Scale (WPS) developed by Petchsawang and Duchon (2009) in Pakistani context school teachers. The participants for this study were 400 public school teachers. The present study was a quantitative research and cross-sectional survey design was applied. The data were collected personally by researchers and necessary guidelines were shared with the respondents.  EFA and CFA were applied to evaluate the psychometric properties of Workplace Spirituality Scale (WPS) in Pakistani context. The results confirm the four factors model (transcendence, mindfulness, compassion and meaningful work) and generalizability of WPS. Furthermore, statistical analysis established adequate reliability and validity of WPS. The modifications in this scale are mentioned, and recommendations for further research are discussed.

Author Biography

Abid Hussain Chaudhary, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

Professor/Dean Faculty of Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.


Ashmos, D. P. & Duchon. D. (2000). Spirituality at Work: A Conceptualization and Measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(1), 134–145.

Azadmarzabadi E., Hoshmandja, M., & Poorkhalil, M. (2012). Relationship between organizational spirituality with psychological empowerment, creativity, spiritual intelligence, job stress, and job satisfaction of university staff. Journal of Behavioral Sciences,6 (2), 181-187.

Barsade, S. G., & O’Neill. O. A (2014). What’s love got to do with it? A longitudinal study of the culture of companionate love and employee and client outcomes in a long-term care setting. Administrative Science Quarterly, 59 (4), 551-598.

Burack, E.H. (1999). Spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 280-292.

Daniel, J. (2010). The effect of workplace spirituality on team effectiveness. Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 442-456.

Delbecq, L.A. (1999). Christian spirituality and contemporary business leadership. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 345-349.

Fairlie, P. (2011). Meaningful work, employee engagement, and other key employee outcomes: Implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 508-525.

Freshman, B. (1999). An exploratory analysis of definitions and applications of spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 318 - 329.

Giacalone, R., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2003). Toward a science of workplace spirituality. In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds), The handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp. 3-28). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Good, D. J., Lyddy, C. J., Glomb, T. M., Bono, J. E., Brown, K. W., Duffy, M. K., Baer, R. A., Brewer, J. A., & Lazar, S. W. (2015). Contemplating mindfulness at work: An integrative review. Journal of Management, 42 (1), 114-142.

Gotsis, G., & Kortezi, Z. (2008). Philosophical foundations of workplace spirituality: A critical approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 575-600.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Karakas, F. (2010). Spirituality and performance in organizations: a literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 94 (1), 89-106.

Kolodinsky, R., Giacalone, R., & Jurkiewicz, C. (2008). Workplace values and outcomes: exploring personal, organizational, and interactive workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 465-480.

Lace, J., Haeberlein, K., & Handal, P. (2017). Five-factor structure of the spiritual transcendence scale and its relationship with clinical psychological distress in emerging adults. Religions, 8(10), 1-13.

Leigh, P. (1997). The new spirit at work. Training, 51(3), 26-33.

Liu, C., & Robertson, P.J. (2011). Spirituality in the workplace: Theory and measurement. Journal of Management Inquiry 20(1), 35-50.

Marques, J., Dhiman, S., & King, R. (2005). Spirituality in the workplace: Developing an integral model and a comprehensive definition. The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 1(7), 81-91.

Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A.J., & Ferguson.J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16 (4), 426 - 447.

Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999b). A study of spirituality in the workplace. Sloan Management Review 40(4), 83-93.

Mitroff, I., & Denton, E. (1999a). A spiritual audit of corporate america: A hard look at spirituality, religion, and values in the workplace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mitroff, I.I., (2003). Do not promote religion under the guise of spirituality. Organization, 10(2), 375-378.

Orcan, F. (2018). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: which one to use first. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 9(4), 414-421.

Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS Survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS program. London: McGraw-Hill Education.

Pawar, B. S. (2009). Individual spirituality, workplace spirituality and work attitudes: An empirical test of direct and interaction effects. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 30(8), 759-777.

Petchsawang, P., & Duchon, D. (2009). Measuring workplace spirituality in an Asian context. Human Resource Development International, 12(4), 459-468.

Rastgar, A., Jangholi, M., Heidari, F., & Heidarina, H. (2012). An investigation on the role of spiritual leadership in organizational identification. Studies on General Management, 16, 39-63.

Saks, A. M. (2011). Workplace spirituality and employee engagement. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 8(4), 317-340.

Shrestha, A. K. (2016). Further validation of workplace spirituality scale in an Eastern context. Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(1), 1-13.

Tischler, L., Biberman, J., & McKeage, R. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence, spirituality and workplace performance: Definitions, models and ideas for research. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), 203-218.

Wagner-Marsh, F., & Conley, J. (1999). The fourth wave: The spiritually-based firm. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 292-301.



How to Cite

Muhammad Aslam, & Chaudhary, A. H. (2021). Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of Workplace Spirituality Scale in Pakistani Context School Teachers. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v8i2.413