Determining Factors of Organizational Learning Capabilities: In the context of educational institutes of third world country Pakistan


  • Janet Hanson Azusa Pacific University
  • Muhammad Niqab Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal
  • Arthur Bangert Montana State University



Organizational learning capibility, Dimensions of OLC, Educational institutes, Leadership role.


The purpose of this quantitative study was to test the dimensions of Organizational learning capability (OLC) and the reliability of the newly develop measurement instrument to capture those dimensions using structural equation modelling. Data was collected using Likert-style survey from teachers (N=150) in the context of public secondary schools (N=15) in the developing country, Pakistan. Methods included statistical equation modeling including gender as moderating variable. This study extends the literature on OLC to the demographic of educational institutes. The results of the analysis revealed the four-factor structure of managerial commitment (MC), systems perspective (SP), openness and experimentation (EX), and knowledge transfer and integration (TR) provides a reliable model of OLC, with a statistically significant correlation between the factors and OLC. The main effect in explaining changes in OLS was demonstrated by EX, with gender showing statistically significant in moderating the relationships of the variables with OLS.


Abbasi, T., Hashemi, M., Armineh, A. R., & Bakhtiari, M. (2014). Examining the

relationship between intellectual capital and labor productivity: with an emphasis

on organizational learning. , 6(4), 791–817.


Allameh, S., Abbasi, S., & Shokrani, S. (2010). The mediating role of organizational

learning capability between intellectual capital and job satisfaction. European

Journal of Social Sciences, 17(1), 1-12.

Altinay, L., Madanoglu, M., De Vita, G., Arasli, H., & Ekinci, Y. (2016). The interface

between organizational learning capability, entrepreneurial orientation, and SME

growth. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(3), 871-891.

Awan, A. G., & Zia, A. (2015). Comparative analysis of public and private educational

institutions: A case study of District Vehari-Pakistan. Journal of Education and

Practice, 6(16), 122-130.

Babbie, E. R. (1990). Survey research methods. Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Bartlett, M. S. (1950). Tests of significance in factor analysis. British Journal of Statistical

Psychology, 3(2), 77-85.

Barnard, P. A. (2020). Secondary school structure, organisational learning capacity

and learning organisations: A systemic contribution. International Journal of

Educational Management, 34(8), 1253–1264.

Becker, G. S. (1962). Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis. Journal of

Political Economy, 70(5, Part 2), 9-49.

Blaikie, N. (2003). Analyzing quantitative data: From description to explanation: Sage.

Borgman, C. L. (2012). The conundrum of sharing research data. Journal of the American

Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(6), 1059-1078.

Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in language programs. Prentice Hall Regents.

Brown, J.D. and Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities of practice:

Towards a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organization Science,

(1), 40-57.

Chadhar, M., & Daneshgar, F. (2018). Organizational learning and ERP Post-implementation

phase: A situated learning perspective. Journal of Information Technology, 19,


Chen, X. (2014). Transactive memory system, communication quality, and knowledge

sharing in distributed teams: An empirical examination in open source software

project teams. In International Conference on Information Systems, Auckland.

Chiva, R. and Alegre, J. (2008). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: the role of

organizational learning capability. Personnel Review, 37(6), 680-701. https://doi.


Connelly, L. M. (2016). Cross-sectional survey research. MEDSURG Nursing, 25(5), 369.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods

Approaches (3rd ed.). CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods

approaches (4th ed.). Sage Publications Inc.

Cricelli, L., Greco, M., Grimaldi, M., & Dueñas, L. P. L. (2018). Intellectual capital and

university performance in emerging countries: Evidence from Colombian public

universities Livio Cricelli, Marco Greco, Michele Grimaldi, Leidy Paola Llanes

Dueñas. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(1), 71-95.

Fang, C.-H., Chang, S.-T., & Chen, G.-L. (2011). Organizational learning capability and

organizational innovation: The moderating role of knowledge inertia. African

Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1864-1870.

García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012).

Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through

organizational learning and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7),


Gasson, S., & Shelfer, K. M. (2007). IT-based knowledge management to support

organizational learning: Visa application screening at the INS. Information

Technology & People, 20(4), 376-399.

Goh, S. C. (2003). Improving organizational learning capability: Lessons from two case

studies. The Learning Organization, 10(4), 216-227.

Goh, S. C., Elliott, C., & Quon, T. K. (2012). The relationship between learning capability

and organizational performance: A meta-analytic examination. Learning

Organization, 19(2), 92–108.

Goh, S., & Richards, G. (1997). Benchmarking the learning capability of organizations.

European Management Journal, 15(5), 575-583.

Grant, R. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management

Journal, 17, 109-122.

Hanshaw, G., & Hanson, J. L. (2019). Using microlearning and social learning to improve

teachers’ instructional design skills: A mixed methods study of technology

integration in teacher professional development. International Journal of Learning

and Development, 9(1), 145–173.


Hanshaw, G., & Hanson, J. L. (2018). A mixed methods study of leaders’ perceptions of

microlearning for professional development on the job. International Journal of

Learning and Development, 8(3), 1–21.


Hanson, J. L. (2017). Manage you mindset: Maximize your power of personal choice.:

Rowman & Littlefield.

Hanson, J., Loose, W., & Reveles, U. (2020). A qualitative case study of all-but-dissertation

students at risk for dissertation noncompletion: A new model for supporting

candidates to doctoral completion. Journal of College Student Retention: Research,

Theory & Practice, 1–29.

Hanson, J. L., Niqab, M., & Bangert, A. (2021). Educational context of intellectual capital:

An exploratory four-factor study. In M. Shahbaz, M. S. Mubarik, & T. Mahmood

(Eds.), The Dynamics of Intellectual Capital in Current Era (No. 1; Vol. 1, pp.

–62). Springer Nature.

Hanson, B., Sugden, A., & Alberts, B. (2011). Making data maximally available. Science

(New York, NY), 331(6018), 649.

Hanson, J., Bangert, A., & Ruff, W. (2016). Exploring the relationship between school

growth mindset and organizational learning variables: Implications for multicultural

education. Journal of Educational Issues, 2(2), 222-243.


Imran, M. K., Ilyas, M., & Aslam, U. (2016). Organizational Learning through

Transformational Leadership. Learning Organization, 23(4), 232-248.

Jackson, D. L. (2003). Revisiting sample size and number of parameter estimates:

Some support for the N: q hypothesis. Structural Equation Modeling, 10(1),


Jamil, N. R., & Obeidat, B. (2019). Reviewing the mediating role of organizational

learning capability on the effect of transformational leadership on entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Business & Management, 7(2), 111-

Jerez-Gomez, P., Cespedes-Lorente, J., & Valle-Cabrera, R. (2005). Organizational

learning capability: a proposal of measurement. Journal of Business

Research, 58(6), 715-725.

Johnson, B. (2001). Toward a new classification of nonexperimental quantitative

research. Educational Researcher, 30(2), 3-13.

Kaiser, M. (1974). Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure for identity correlation matrix.

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 52, 296-298.

Khalib, L. H., Kassim, N. A., Ghazali, F. I., Jaafar, N., & Idris, A. (2015).

Organizational learning capabilities (OLC) toward job satisfaction: A

conceptual framework. Academic Research International, 6(2), 169-180.

Khalifa, B., & Ayoubi, R. M. (2015). Leadership styles at Syrian Higher Education.

International Journal of Educational Management, 29(4), 477-491.

Kline, R. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.).

Guilford press.

Kools, M., & Stoll, L. (2016). What makes a school a learning organisation? Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measures, 30, 607-610. › sompong › guest_speaker › KrejcieandMorgan_article.pdf

Liao, S. H., & Wu, C. (2009). Knowledge management and innovation: The

mediating effects of organizational learning. Paper presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management.

Lopez-Nicolas, C., & Soto-Acosta, P. (2010). Analyzing ICT adoption and use effects on knowledge creation: An empirical investigation in SMEs.

International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), 521-528.

Malik, S., Chetty, M., & Chadhar, M. (2018). Information Technology and Organizational Learning Interplay: A Survey. Paper presented at the

Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Information Systems. Sydney, Australasian.

Marshall, J., Smith, S., & Buxton, S. (2009). Learning organisations and organisational learning: What have we learned? Management Services,

(2), 36.

Martin, J. (2015). Transformational and transactional leadership: An exploration of



How to Cite

Hanson, J., Niqab, M. ., & Bangert, A. . (2021). Determining Factors of Organizational Learning Capabilities: In the context of educational institutes of third world country Pakistan. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 8(2).