Bloom’s Taxonomy: Reforming Pedagogy Through Assessment


  • Muhammad Tufail Chandio University of Sindh Laar Campus Badin
  • Nishat Zafar University of Gujrat
  • Ghulam Muhiuddin Solangi Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Nawabshah



Blooms Taxonomy, Assessment, Teaching Pedagogy, Examination, BISE, Educational Psychology


The study analyses the scope and role of Bloom’s Taxonomy in reforming teaching-learning practices in the classroom. Bloom’s Taxonomy propounds that teaching-learning process and assessment items should transcend beyond lower domains of learning i.e. remembering, understanding and applying to the higher domains of learning namely analysing, evaluating and creating. However, this study establishes that teacher always teach in accordance with the normative assessment patterns and students also learn accordingly. In this case, if assessment system is predominantly focused on lower domains, the teaching-learning practices will never transcend to higher domains. This study employs Bloom’s Taxonomy to categorise and analyse each item included in the annual question papers designed by the Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur and Mirpurkhas for the subject of English for grade XII. At Sindh province level, it has been found that 74% is exhausted for the lower domains whereas only 26% is used for higher domains. Given to the normative assessment practices, teachers and students would remain focused only on the lower domains, but by altering the course, the pedagogical practices and teaching-learning process in Sindh province can remarkably be reformed and transformed from sheer memorization and rote-learning to critical thinking, solution-making, knowledge-building process and analytical skills


Aggarwal, C.J. (1997). Essentials of Examination System: Evaluation, Test and Measurement. New Delhi: Vikas Publications Pvt Limited.

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives.

Aslam, H. D. et al. (2010). Comparison of Human Resources’ Impact on Teaching Grammar to Second Language Learners and Developing Teachers’ attitude towards Teaching of English Grammar at Secondary School Level. Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 335-350.

Behlol, M. G. & Anwar, M. (2011). Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan, International Education Studies, 4(1), 202-211.

Bhatti, M. A. (1987). Secondary Education in Pakistan: Perspective Planning, Islamabad: National Education Council.

Black, P. (1998). Testing: Friend or foe? Theory and practice of assessment and testing. London: Falmer Press.

Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives – The classification of educational goals – Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd.

Chandio, Muhammad Tufail, Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza and Rabia Iqbal. (2016). Bloom’s Taxonomy: Improving Assessment and Teaching-Learning Process. In Journal of Education and Educational Development (JoEED), 3 (2), 203-221.

Dakar (2010). The Education system in Malawi: World Bank Working Paper No. 182. World Bank Publication.

Gipps, C. (1994). Beyond testing: Towards a theory of educational assessment. Lewes: Falmer Press.

Gipps, C. (1996). Assessment for Learning in Little, A. & Wolf, A. (eds.) Assessment in Transition: learning, monitoring and selection in international perspective. Oxford: Pergamon. Chapter 15, pp. 251-261.

Greaney V. & Hasan, P. (1998) Public Examinations in Pakistan: A system in Need of Reform. In Hoodbhoy, P. Education and the State: Fifty Years of Pakistan, Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Greaney, V., & Hasan, P. (1998). Public Examinations in Pakistan: A system in need of reform, in Education and the state: Fifty years of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Harlen, W. & James, M. (1997). Assessment and Learning: differences and relationships between formative and summative assessment. In Assessment in Education, 4 (3), 365-381.

Hayes, L .D. (1987) The Crises of Education in Pakistan, Lahore: Vanguard Books Ltd.

Henning, G. (2012). Twenty Common testing mistakes for EFL teachers to avoid. English Teaching Forum, 50(3), 33-40.

Jadoon, Zafar Iqbal & Jabeen Nasira (2008). Towards Effective Implementation of Semester System in Pakistan: Lessons from Punjab University.

Jimaa, Shihab. (2011). The impact of assessment on students learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28. 718-721.

Kellaghan, T. & Greaney, V. (2001). Using Assessment to Improve the Quality of Education. Paris: UNESCO: International Institute of Educational Planning.

Mirza, M. (1999). Examination system and teaching and practice of teachers at Secondary, Higher Secondary and O’Level. Bulletin of Education and Research, No. 1, Lahore: Institute of Education and Research Quaid –E- Azam Campus, University of the Punjab.

Omar, Mathias (2010). Constitutional protection of the right to education in Tanzania and South Africa: a comparative study. Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law University of Pretoria.

Rehmani, A. (2003). Impact of public examination system on teaching and learning in Pakistan. International Biannual Newsletter ANTRIEP, 8(2), 3–7.

Rosado, C. (2000). The Meaning of Education or Why Do We Do What We Do? Conference for the California State Department of Education. San Francisco, California.

Shamim, F. (2008). Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan. In Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 28(3), 235-249.

Siddiqui, S. (2010). Rethinking education in Pakistan: Perceptions, practices and possibilities. Karachi: Paramount Publishing Enterprise.

Warwick, D. P. and Reimers, F. (1995). Hope and Despair? Learning in Pakistan’s Primary Schools. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Yousaf, Asfandyar and Hashim, Muhammad (2012). A Case study of Annual and Semester Systems of Examination on Government College of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan. In International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 9.



How to Cite

Chandio, M. T., Nishat Zafar, & Solangi, G. M. . (2021). Bloom’s Taxonomy: Reforming Pedagogy Through Assessment. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 8(1).




Most read articles by the same author(s)